Here is a list of the names of French records as you can find them on archives websites.
“Cadastre” / “Plans cadastraux” : land registers and cadastral maps (created during the first half of the 19th century). See this other post for more information on How to find old maps of France online.
“Etat civil” / “Registres d’état civil” : civil registration (starting in 1793). If you want to know more, read this post about the 5 dates you need to know about French civil registration.
“Matricules militaires” / “Registres de matricules” : military records (mostly between 1870 and 1921).
“Presse” : local newspapers (mostly in the 19th and 20th century).
“Recensements de population” : census records (mostly between 1836 and 1936). See this post for more information on How to use French census records.
“Registres paroissiaux” : parish records (until 1792). See this post for more information on the difference between civil registration and parish records.
“Répertoires des notaires” : chronological lists of notary records (various dates).
“Tables de successions et absences” : alphabetical tables of all deaths and estates in an administrative district (throughout the 19th and 20th century).